Thursday, April 6, 2017

Understanding DNA

Understanding DNA - DNA is a nucleic acid that stores all the unique biological information of every living creature and some viruses. Its chemical structure of macromolecular complex consisting of three kinds of molecules, ie pentose sugar (deoxyribose), phosphoric acid, and a nitrogenous base. The main role of DNA molecules is the long-term storage of information. DNA is often compared to a set of blueprints or a recipe, or a code, since it contains the instructions needed to construct other components of cells, such as proteins and RNA molecules. DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of genetic information.

Understanding DNA

DNA can replicate that form a copy of itself. Each strand of DNA containing a specific base sequences. Each base is also connected by sugar and phosphate molecules. When the bases form the rungs (horizontal), then the sugar and phosphate molecules forming the vertical part of the stairs.

DNA is short for deoxyribonucleic acid, or in Indonesian called deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA derived from the three main words that Deoxyribo, and nucleid acid (nucleic acid). Deoxyribo word meaning (Wikipedia) is a sugar loses its oxygen atom, while the meaning of the nucleic acid (Wikipedia) is a molecule that contains genetic information.

DNA molecules in our bodies are arranged in packets called chromosomes. Every human being has 23 pairs of chromosomes. One of the 23 pairs of chromosomes, called the sex chromosomes, are different in men and women. Females have two X chromosomes, men have chromosomes X and Y. Every organism has a different number of chromosomes. For example, simpanze have 24 pairs, 11 pairs bananas, and flies only 4 pairs.

Furthermore, the chromosomes are arranged in short segments of DNA called genes. When DNA is a recipe book, then each gene is a recipe. This recipe tells cells how to function and express certain properties. Humans have about 25,000 genes. Genes that determine hair color, hair type, skin color, eye color, etc. For example, a person has dark curly hair because the genes inherited from the parents instruct cells to form hair follicles and curly black hair.

Monday, April 3, 2017

Understanding Delusions

Understanding Delusions - Delusions are a hoax picture of observation, drawing all or gamabr who deceive us, with the evils that can not be corrected, and does not fit at all with the mind as well as his own opinion. Delusions were generally caused by past experiences are overwhelmed by feelings of sin and guilt, as well as haapan-expectations or not reached.

Understanding Delusions

Several types of delusions we may note here, is as follows:
1. Delusions hipokondris; No delusions always suffer pain patients feel bodily: accompanied chronic anxieties and fears about the health of the body's own patalogis. Patients feel "confident" it is true that he suffered from a serious illness. Each Simpton smallest pain was felt as a great disaster, which could mengakibatakan death. In particular this hipokondris delusions caused by a conflict with conflict intrapsychic long and severe.
2. nihilistic delusions: patients seized with feelings of "no longer exists or is dead". He felt like a worthless piece of dead bodies. Patients become desperate and useless life on earth.
3. Cotard syndrome: no delusion can not live anymore, which is accompanied by delusions could not possibly be dead. There was an idea she could no longer live in this world; but at the same time he felt confident could not possibly be dead. Therefore he constantly felt guilty to penetrate the sins and stains are attached to him, he must direjam with hell torments the world today.

Factors causing Delusions
Generally caused by pangalaman-pangalaman past overwhelmed by feelings of sin and guilt, as well as the expectations that have not been reached.

Sunday, April 2, 2017

Understanding HTTP

Understanding HTTP

Understanding HTTP - HTTP stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol is a protocol used to send documents or halamamn the WWW or World Wide Web. While understanding the big dictionary HTTP is a networking protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the WWW.

In terms of the HTTP, specify how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what the response of the browser. History of the HTTP protocol used in the WWW first time around 1990. Well used at that time is the HTTP protocol version 0.9 which is a data transfer protocol is raw, uncooked intent here is that data is sent regardless of the type of the document itself.

6 Years later, namely around 1996, the HTTP protocol has improved so that it becomes the HTTP protocol version 1.0. And in 1999 issued selanjjutnya ie HTTP version 1.1 to accommodate a proxy, caching and persistent connections.

HTTP is protoko simple client server based application that is built on TCP (transmission control protocol). An HTTP client typically initiates a request by creating a relationship to a particular port on a particular webhosting hserver sebua. Commonly used port is port 80. Clients also often known by the user agent, while the server responds and also save the resources such as HTML files and images is called the origin server.

Well between the two is the user agent and the origin server there may be oenghubung, such as geteway, tunnel and proxy. Well then the source you want to access by using HTTP are identified using a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) scheme URL http: or https :.

Function and How it Works HTTP

You must know that HTTP appears at the beginning of every web address. Yes all web services run through this protocol. HTTPS is a variant of HTTP in which case inibrowser add another layer of encryption.

The workings of this protocol is to communicate with one another. The protocol is the command to be followed by each computer to be able to send or receive messages. The use of the most common protocols are HTTP, SMTP, FTP, IMAP, POP3, and many others.

The function of the HTTP itself is to establish how the message or data that is formatted and ditrasmisikan into a form that could respond to the browser to bring these data.

Wednesday, March 29, 2017

Understanding Coalition

Understanding Coalition

Understanding Coalition - General understanding of the coalition is Gambungan or it can be said Coalition is a group of individuals who have integrated the deliberately formed independently of the formal organizational structure, which consists of membership perceived mutual benefit, service-oriented problems or issues, focusing on the goal (influence on the parties) in outside the coalition, and require joint action by the members.

Understanding Coalition Under ambient conditions
In a parliamentary system of government, a coalition government is a government composed of a coalition of several parties
The opposition coalition is composed of an opposition coalition of several parties.
A coalition In international relations could mean a combination of several countries established for a specific purpose.
Coalitions can also refer to a group of people / citizens who join for a similar purpose.
Coalition in economics refers to an affiliated company of each other which creates a mutually beneficial relationship.

Coalition by Composition
Potential coalition, a condition in which there is interest that arise, could be a coalition if the collective action taken. The coalition is divided into two, namely Latent (not yet formed into active coalition) and Dormant (preconceived, but is not active).
Coalition active (operating), the coalition that is running. The coalition is divided into two, namely the coalition established (established), a coalition of active, relatively stable, and took place over a limited and temporary coalition (temporary) is a coalition formed to short-term, focus on a single issue.
Coalition repeatedly (recurring), a temporary coalition to continue because the issue has not been solved.

Coalition Formation Method
Starting with one of the founders (founder).
By adding one member at a time.
Achieving critical mass (critical mass).
Inviting the weakest support (weak ties can be strong).
Secretly formed and dissolved as soon as possible

Based Coalition colleagues aim.
Allies (allies).
Opponents (opponents).
Bedfellows (co-line).
Fence sitters (class).
Adversaries (opponents).

Monday, March 27, 2017

Definition of GSM and CDMA

Definition of GSM and CDMA

Definition of GSM and CDMA
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) is one of the standard wireless communication system (wireless) are bersifatterbuka. GSM phones are used by more than one billion people in more than 200 negara.Banyaknya GSM standard makes international roaming very common with "persetujuanroaming" between mobile phone operators. There is also another sense of the Global System for mobilecommunication (GSM) is a global standard for digital mobile communications. GSM adalahnama of a standardization group that was formed in Europe in 1982 for common standards menciptakansebuah cellular mobile phone in Europe that operates on frekuensi900MHz area. GSM is currently widely used in countries in many different dunia.GSM with previous technology in signaling and "channel" talks are digital, which means iadipandang as a mobile phone system second generation (2G). GSM is an open standard which is currently developed by the 3GPP.

Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a form of multiplexing (not a modulation scheme) and a metodeakses in bersamayangmembagi channel is not based on time (like padaTDMA) or frequency (as padaFDMA), but instead encodes the data with a special code yangdiasosiasikan with each channel existing and use sifatinterferensikonstruktif properties of the special codes to perform a mobile phone pemultipleksan.Dalam teknologitelekomunikasi development primarily related to third generation (3G) CDMA become the technology of choice a future
, CDMA also refers to digital cellular systems menggunakanskema this multiple access, such as those pioneered olehQualcomm.CDMA is a military technology that was first used in the Second World padaPerang by British allies to thwart Germany mengganggutransmisi them. Allies decided to transmit not only on satufrekuensi, but at some frequencies, make it difficult for Germany to menangkapsinyal that lengkap.Sejak that CDMA is used in many communications systems, including padaGlobal Positioning System (GPS) and the transport logistics satelitOmniTRACSuntuk system. The last system was designed and developed by Qualcomm, and became the forerunner of which help engineers to menemukanSoft Handoff Qualcomm and fast power control, the technology needed to make CDMA praktisdan efficient for terrestrial mobile communications.

The difference between GSM and CDMA

The fundamental difference from CDMA technology is modulasinya.Modulasi CDMA system is a combination of FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) and TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access). In FDMA technology, one frequency channel serving one circuit at a time, whereas in TDMA, 1 channel frequencies used by multiple users in a manner different time slots. In the CDMA multiple users can be served at the same time and the same frequency, where no distinction between each other on their coding system, so the use of spectrum CDMA technology is very efisien.Kelebihan of CDMA include voice and data quality, price or tariffs cheaper, smaller investment, and communication security (not easily intercepted).

GSM and GPRS technology content is terlibas the limitations CDMAkarena be wide data and multimedia applications on GSM-based technology GSM.Kelebihan technology in Indonesia is widely danroaming yanga very large home both in the country and even around the world, while CDMA TelkomFlexi still very limited. There are two types of CDMA mobile phones without the card so that the call number should be programmed by the dispatcher is concerned, but there is also a CDMA phone that is equipped with UIM (User Identification Module Removal) or in terms of GSM known as SIMCard.Dari aspects of both GSM and CDMA technology is teknologiseluler standard digital GSM only difference is developed by European countries and are 'open source', while CDMA from the US and Japan. Which perludiperhatikan that GSM and CDMA technologies coming from different lines, so that the development of 2.5G and 3G generation to the next will be different.

Sunday, March 26, 2017

Understanding Code of Ethics

Understanding Code of Ethics

Understanding The Code - a code of ethics is an ethical order which has been agreed by a particular group of people. The code of conduct is generally included in the social norm, but when there is a code of conduct that has a rather severe sanction, then fall into the category of legal norms.

The Code can also be interpreted as a pattern of rules, ordinances, signs, ethical guidelines in conducting an activity or employment. The code of ethics is a pattern of rules or ordinances as the Code of Conduct. The purpose of professional code of ethics in order to provide best possible services to users or customers. The existence of a code of conduct to protect the act of unprofessional

Functions Professional Code of Conduct
The code of ethics it is a means to help the executive as someone whose professional that can not damage the ethics of the profession. There are three main things that is a function of the code of professional conduct:
a) The code of ethics provides guidelines for every member of the profession on the principles of professionalism outlined. It means that the code of ethics of the profession, professional executor is able to know something that can be done and what not to do.
b) The code of ethics is a means of social control for the public on the profession concerned. It means that the professional ethics can provide a knowledge of the community to also be able to understand the importance of a profession, thereby enabling control of the implementers in employment (social circles).
c) code of ethics to prevent outside interference in professional organizations about the relationship of ethics in the membership of the profession. That meaning can be explained that the executors profession on an institution or another company should not interfere with the implementation of the profession in other agencies or companies.

In the sphere of IT, professional ethical code contains the scientific study of the principles and norms in regard to the relationship between IT professional or developer with clients, among the professionals themselves, between professional organizations and professional organizations and the government. One form a professional relationship with the client (user services) for the creation of an application program.
A professional can not create programs without restraint, there are some things that should he note as to what the program will be used by the client or user, he can guarantee the security (security) system work the application program from the parties that could disrupt the system works (eg : hacker, cracker, etc.). Informatikawan professional code of ethics is part of the ethics of the profession.
If IT professionals violated ethical codes, their moral sanction, sanksisosial, shunned, banned from his job, perhaps even removed from office.

Friday, March 24, 2017

Understanding DDOS

Understanding DDOS - DDOS attacks (Denial Distribute of services) Attack, is probably the most simple attacks done but the effect is very dangerous.
Large sites such as,,,, and others had experienced an attack that resulted in his site could not be accessed for several hours.

The latest is the site in 2005 yesterday, his site was attacked using methods DDOS (Denial Distribute of services).

How does the DDOS?

If you use Windows program, trying to do this on your computer.

1. Start, Programs, Accessories, Command Prompt
2. Then at the command prompt type, ping -t

or it could be the Start, Run, Ping -t

Then your computer will send a packet of information to the site in the heading above, basically by the command of your computer sends a greeting "Hello, is anyone there?", To a site on the go earlier. then the site server in the heading before sending the answers back by saying: "Yes, here there are people"

Now imagine, if there are thousands of computers, at the same time perform the command at the site on the go. 1 computer sends data at 32 bytes / sec to sites on the go. If there are 10,000 computers simultaneously perform the command, it means that no data items amounted to 312 Mega Bytes / sec which is accepted by the site on the go earlier.

And the server of the site that the tenor had had to respond to mails sent from 10,000 computers simultaneously. If the 312 MB / sec of data that must be processed by the server, in 1 minutes, the server must process the shipment data of 312 MB x 60 seconds = 18720 MB. Can guess, the site is attacked by this method will have Over Load / overload of data, and are not able to process the shipment data come.

Her question, how 10,000 computers can join the attack?

Other computers which undertook the attack called zombie computers, which had been infected with some kind of adware. so the attacker just ordered a main computer to send commands to the zombie computers are already infected in order to carry out Ping to sites on the go. Hence the importance of a firewall on your computer, to monitor the packets outgoing and incoming from your computer.

Thursday, March 23, 2017

Understanding CMOS Battery

Understanding CMOS Battery - What is CMOS? CMOS stands for Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconcuktor, a battery used by the BIOS to remain active in the absence of electricity, the type of semi-conductor chip that stores data without requiring an external power source.

Understanding CMOS Battery

How it Works CMOS
used to store the configuration program, the diagnostic program and update the file creation date and time will not be lost even if the computer is turned off.
important characteristics of CMOS is he breathed high immunity and low static power consumption. Power is only drawn when the transistors in a CMOS switch between the living and the dead. Consequently, CMOS devices do not cause heat as much as other logic circuits, such as transistor-transistor logic (TTL) or NMOS logic, which only uses the n-type devices without p-type. CMOS also allows the logic chip with high density are made.

When the computer's power supply ignited, CMOS runs a series of checks to make sure the system is functioning properly. One examination included counting the use of random access memory (RAM). Because of this delay boot time, so some people disable this feature in the CMOS settings, opting for a quick boot. If installing new RAM it is better if it is switched out until the RAM has been checked properly then deactivated

After the POST is completed, CMOS check other settings. Checking Hard disk formats and configuration Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID), boot preferences, the presence of peripherals, and overclocking tweaks. Many settings can be manually changed the CMOS configuration to improve performance. However, these changes should only be performed by experienced users. Changing the settings carelessly can make the system unstable, cause crashes, or even prevent the computer from booting.

CMOS configuration can be accessed during the POST phase of boot up, by pressing a certain button before the operating system initializes. Usually using Del key but others may be another motherboard also used. There is also the option to protect CMOS settings by requiring a password to change the setting. The changes will be saved upon exit by pressing the F10 key, and then reboot the computer to use the new settings.
Most motherboards provide the user a list of all the options available in CMOS. It is noteworthy that this will vary according to motherboard design and BIOS manufacturer. Two of the most famous producers BIOS is Phoenix and Award, while companies like Dell and Compaq produce their own BIOS chips.

Function CMOS:
Storing data without the need for external power
Powering the BIOS
Saving BIOS configuration

Error In CMOS:
A message appears on the screen that there are problems in CMOS When we turn on the computer warned that pressing F2 is menenjukan that bateray CMOS is already so weak that needs to be replaced.
Nothing displayed on the monitor. To overcome the above we can malakukan initial repair by replacing the new CMOS, and if the message still appears the possibility of trouble lies in a CMOS chip that is less true, try to memperbaikainya.
CMOS Battery Characteristics
The main characteristics of the CMOS is, using only CMOS power consumption is required, in the sense of a CMOS sensor using only a small force compared to the other image sensor.

Tuesday, March 21, 2017

Definition Unicode

Definition Unicode - Unicode is a universal character encoding standard. It defines how individual characters are represented in text files, web pages, and other types of documents.

Unlike ASCII, which is designed to represent characters only basic English, is designed to support Unicode characters from all languages ​​around the world. Standard ASCII character set supports only 128 characters, while Unicode can support about one million characters. While ASCII uses only one byte to represent each character, Unicode support up to 4 bytes for each character.

Definition Unicode

There are several types of encoding Unicode, although UTF-8 and UTF-16 is the most common. UTF-8 character encoding has become the standard used in the Web as well as the default encoding that is used by many software programs. While UTF-8 supports up to four bytes per character, it would be inefficient uses four bytes to represent commonly used characters. Therefore, UTF-8 uses only one byte to represent the character of the English public. European (Latin), Hebrew and Arabic characters are represented by two bytes, while three bytes are used for Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and other Asian characters. Additional Unicode characters can be represented with four bytes.

Unicode is a method of setting the binary code to text and other forms of writing. This method is expected to bridge the various characters are not the same as the Latin inscription. Say writing Chinese, Arabic, Balinese, and so forth. This system has the ability to write, process, and display a variety of activities from the article itself. This technology is expected to resolve the problem of writing in a language that was not written using the Greek writing. Unicode support all writing systems in the world. Unicode is a character set with multi-lingual capabilities. Today, almost all vendorsistem support operations. Unicode is an encoding system that is used in addition to ASCII and EBCDIC on the computer system. The term Unicode is often called the Double Byte Character. ASCII character sets that use two bytes for each character. Capable of processing 65,536 character combinations so as to process words from different languages ​​in the world.

Sunday, March 19, 2017

Understanding Torrent

Understanding Torrent - Understanding Torrent is a Network File Sharing Labels, which is one file-sharing technology called P2P (read: Peer to Peer), where user-user connected to send and receive a portion of a file, the tracker as pengkoordinasinya. Tracker did not have the file you are looking for, do not have the data about the contents of the file, because it despite the limited tracker bandwidth, coordination can continue. Philosophy is essentially a user must also upload the data when they download. Thus, we are in the same time acting as a data server.

Understanding Torrent

Torrent itself is a small file, which is only about a few kilobytes with the extension * .torrent. This file contains the information needed to download a specific file. The information contained in the torrent file includes the file name, size, place the download and so on.

Keep in mind that how the torrent is shared. So we need to keep a connection open so that others can also download the file you just downloaded via computer. Lama this connection we can set, for example, one hour after the connection will be disconnected automatically. Here are some terms in torrent:
1. Seed is the user, who has finished downloading from torrent and file sharing.
2. Peer is all the people who are downloading files after the download is complete, he became the seed (seeder).
3. Leech is the same with the peer, often used to name the peer with UD (Upload / Download) ratio is low. While the term Leecher addressed to those who have finished downloading a file and once finished downloading the file they immediately disconnect or stop the process of sharing the file.
4. UD ratio is the ratio of download and upload. Upload and download ratios were moderate, if the value is 1 (you download the same as you have uploaded).
5. Tracker is a server, which coordinates the process of downloading all users. The server stores data about how many seeder, leecher, peers and other info from a torrent file. Tracker identifies the location of a network of people who download, upload / sharing a file.
6. Swarm is the conclusion of all seeds and peers (thus tracker has a swarm of all computers ever download a torrent file from it). Torrent files can be downloaded on the website that provides torrent files. The complete list of websites that provide torrent files can be found on THIS page. The download speed depends on the number and Peerr Seed / Leech. To download torrent files using torrent client such as uTorrent or BitTorrent download download HERE HERE Ok enough formal language.

There are a few tips to memlih torrent file from Torrent Tracker (website which provides a torrent file), so that the speed of the files that we download more stable / faster, namely:
1. When choosing a clay torrent file comparison seed and leech it. If more than leech seed usually download will cepet, if otherwise the download can be slow. example: seed = 10000; Leech = 50000 => likely to slow ratio (1/5) seed = 50; Leech = 5 => likely quick ratio (10/1)
2. Note also the quality of torrent files that we download from torrent Tracker. Indicated the number of people who have downloaded the file and commented positively on the file.
3. Install patch EvID4226Patch223d-en create windows
4. Setting BitTorrent / uTorrent in optiona € "Preferences â €" Advanced â € "find net.max_halfopen setting between 50 -" 100 (I use 80) default value 8.
5. Setting BitTorrent / uTorrent in Option â € "Preferences â €" Bandwidth â € "enter a value for Global maximum number of connections (tuh total peer who is connected to you) etc: 200 higher the better; Maximum number of connected peers per torrent (this number of peer that is connected to you for each file that you donwload / share) etc: 60 higher the better; Number of upload slots per torrent (this number can download from a peer that you simultaneously) etc: 2 the smaller the better.

Friday, March 17, 2017

Understanding Flowchart and Types

Understanding Flowchart and Types - Flowchart is is a chart with specific symbols that describe in detail the process sequence and the relationship between a process (instruction) with other processes within the program.

Here are some of the symbols used in drawing a flowchart:

Flowchart divided into five types, namely:

  • Flowchart System (System Flowchart)
  • Flowchart Flowchart Document (Document Flowchart)
  • Schematic Flowchart (Schematic Flowchart)
  • Flowchart Program (flowchart)
  • Flowchart Process (Process Flowchart)
Flowchart System
Flowchart System is a chart that shows the workflow or what is being done within the overall system and explain the sequence of procedures that exist in the system. In other words, this flowchart is a graphical decryption of a sequence of procedures that are combined to form a system.

Flowchart System consists of data that flows through the systems and processes that transform data. Flowchart and process data in the system can be portrayed online (connected directly to a computer) or offline (not connected directly to the computer, for example, typewriters, cash registers or a calculator).

Flowchart documents
Flowchart document (document flowchart) or also called flow chart form (form flowchart) or paperwork flowchart is a flow chart showing the flow of reports and forms including copy-copy. Flowchart This document uses symbols similar to those used in the system flow chart.

Schematic flowchart
Schematic flow chart (schematic flowchart) is a flow chart similar to a flow chart of the system, which is to describe the procedure in the system. The difference is, besides schematic flow chart symbols, a flow chart of the system, also used pictures of computers and other equipment used. The point of using these images is to facilitate the communication to those who are less familiar with flow chart symbols. The use of these images makes it easy to understand, but difficult and long draw.

Flowchart program
Flowchart program (program flowchart) is a chart that describes in detail the steps of the program. Program flow chart made of derivikasi system flow chart.

Flowchart can program consists of two kinds, namely flowchart program logic (program logic flowchart) and a detailed flowchart of a computer program (computer program detailed flowchart). Program logic flow chart used to illustrate each step in the computer program logic. This program logic flow chart prepared by systems analyst.

Process flowchart
Flowchart The process is engineered industrial imaging techniques that break down and analyze the next steps in a procedure or system. A flow chart of the process using five separate symbols.

Flowchart The process used by industrial engineers in studying and developing manufacturing processes. In systems analysis, this flowchart is used effectively to trace the flow of a report or form.

Thursday, March 16, 2017

Understanding DOS (Disk Operating System)

Understanding DOS (Disk Operating System)

Understanding DOS - DOS (Disk Operating System) is a text-based operating system that Microsoft released before Windows or can be said as the operating system using the command-line interface used by the computer users in the decade of the 1980s. address for booting the computer and run multiple software applications, such as WS and Lotus.

DOS function that is used today is that of use in resolving some troubleshooting on computer hardware. Although it could also be done on GUI-based operating system. Just as Terminal in Linux, DOS has a list of text-based commands to be typed in DOS Console or commonly called Command Prompt. Knowing the use of the DOS command is the knowledge of its own that need to be understood by a Windows-based network administrator. You will be more easily controlled or remote computer NetBIOS Hacking on Windows-based console to determine DOS commands.

The following DOS functions:

  • Resolving some troubleshooting on computer hardware.
  • Organizing or controlling computer activities
  • Adjust memory
  • Set the input and output data
  • Management file
  • Management directory

Some DOS family is divided into classes items, namely:

1. MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System), included among which are Tandy DOS, Compaq DOS, Q-DOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System) and several clones of MS-DOS operating system that are sold to manufacturers of IBM PC computer system / Compatible.

2.IBM PC-DOS (International Business Machine Personal Computer Disk Operating System), which although still made by Microsoft, modified a little to be used by the IBM PC.

3.DR-DOS (Digital Research Disk Operating System), created by the makers of the operating system CP / M, Gary Kildall.

4.Novell Personal Netware, the DR-DOS version that was sold to Novell because of the company managing the CP / M bankruptcy (Novell acquired Digital Research Incorporated).

5.Caldera DOS, a Personal Novell Netware version sold to Caldera Corporation.

6.FreeDOS, the version of DOS that was built from the remnants development Caldera DOS, which was developed by the open source community

Tuesday, March 14, 2017

Understanding C ++ Programming Language

Understanding C ++ Programming Language - Programming language is plentiful. One is C ++. Below is the origin of language C ++ as well as understanding that I quoted from immediately wrote refer to:
C ++ is a computer programming language created by (Bjarne Stroustrup) is the development of the C language developed at Bell Labs (Dennis Ritchie) in the early 1970s, English was derived from an earlier language, the BCL, at first, that language was designed as programming language that runs on Unix systems, on development, version of the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) the C programming language into a major version, Although the version is now rarely used in the development of systems and networks as well as for embedded systems, Bjarne Stroustrup at Bel labs first developed C ++ in the early 1980s, to support the features in C ++, built efficiency and support system for low-level programming (low level coding). In C ++ added new concepts like class with its properties such as inheritance and overloading. One of the most fundamental differences with the C language is support for the concept of object-oriented programming (Object Oriented Programming).
Differences Between The programming languages ​​C and C ++ though these languages ​​use the same syntax, but they have differences, C is a procedural programming language, where the resolution of a problem to do with the distribution of these issues into the su-subproblems smaller Additionally, C ++ is a programming language that has the properties of object-oriented programming, to resolve the problem, C ++ do the first step by explaining the classes to the children's class created previously as an abstraction of the objects of physical, Class contains state of the object, its members and the ability of objectnya, After Class is made then the problem is solved by Class.
The C language is a basic high-level language that are complex and build logic or algorithms.
C ++ is a programming language that has the properties of object-oriented programming, to resolve the problem, C ++ do the first step by explaining the classes to the children's class created previously as an abstraction of the objects of physical, Class contains state of the object, its members and the ability of objectnya, After Class is made then the problem is solved by Class.
The C language is a procedural programming language that allows us to create a procedure in resolving a problem. C ++ programming language is object-oriented.

Understanding C ++ Programming Language

High-level language is a language that is easily understood by humans, C and C ++ language is an example of a high-level language. Another example of a high-level language is Pascal, Perl, Java, and others. While low-level languages ​​are machine language or languages ​​Assemblies.

Simply put a computer can only execute programs written in machine language. Therefore, if a program is written in high level language, then the program must be processed before you can run with the computer.
The process to change the language to high tinkaat to a lower level language programming language there are 2 types of intrepenter and compiler.
Programming languages ​​such as C and C ++ are examples of the type of compiler. But there is a language that combines two types of this one is the Java language.

Advantages and disadvantages of the programming language C ++:
C ++ was basically a C language as well, nah C major capability it is like:
- Code C ++ language with a high portability and flexibility for all kinds of computers.
- Its ANSI Standard language can be used in different platforms.
- Speed ​​of the program when compared with the same program made in other languages, relatively quickly.
- Language C ++ is available in almost all types of computers.
- Language C ++ provides few key words (there are only 48 keywords).
- Support library functions and classes which many thereby enabling the manufacture of macro applications.
- C ++ is a language that is structured, it will become much support OOP.
- Languages ​​including C ++ language intermediate level and closer to machine language.
- The program code is reusable, so it can be reused in other projects by simply using the library and header files.
- C ++ can create high-quality graphics processor applications.
When compared to VB or Delphi C ++ does not se-RAD these two languages, and tend to be more complicated. however
from this comparison, it is clear there must be trade-offs, such as speed, efficiency code, pengstrukturan code.
Not only the advantages possessed by C ++, but also thinking about shortcomings such as:
- C ++ is not pure OOP making it less suited to teach the concept of OOP for OOP rules can be violated. And
in C ++ there is a concept very membingunkan pointer, which is one reason why C ++ is a scourge that most do not
- C ++ whose benefit is not affected by the operating system but must be the specific tool for developmentnya on one
Visual Studio operating system instance can only run on Windows. This reason also will be able to decrease
interest in another operating system Linux for example. If in practice using Visual Studio then
will automatically use them as well and ultimately lazy to try out other operating systems.
- Implementation of C ++ in IT technology at the present time has very little.
- "Hard" to make something with C ++ so kepeminatannya in deepening Programming finally had run aground
except with their own initiatives to learn the language / other technologies.

Sunday, March 12, 2017

Understanding Mirages

Understanding Mirages - Mirage is something that is false, that is a shadow that looks like there but does not actually exist. As Example is when you walk amid the scorching sun on hot asphalt road and no vehicle, memandanglah a direction away you will find the distance as if there would be a puddle of water. Meanwhile, if you approach the water is not there, as if he would disappear.

Another explanation of the mirage is an optical phenomenon in which usually happens in the vast terrain such as the desert or ice field. Mirage is the refraction of light through different densities, so they can make something that does not exist will be like there. Often in the desert, the mirage resemble a lake or water or city. This is actually a reflection of the sky reflected than hot air. This hot air serves as a mirror.

Mirage (mirage) are commonly considered as an optical illusion due to differences in air density. The light is bent as an object through two layers of air with different temperatures and densities. As a result, people are deceived see the shadows as an object. The image produced can be opaque, inverted, or wavy.

In the past, the presence of a mirage is often attributed to a magical world. Some sightings mirage palace complex as the shadow of the myth had noted various journals. Among others on September 27, 1846. Two people claimed to see the shadow of the city of Edinburgh in the sky Liverpool for 40 minutes. Though Edinburgh is located about 325 kilometers north of Liverpool. Similar events are also experienced by a British geologist. He wrote Toronto saw a shadow in the sky of Lake Ontario.

The appeal was remarkable mirage. Not only the image produced is so beautiful and real. But it is also difficult to enter into the logic. Even the view of the sunset is so beautiful, is not separated from the phenomenon of mirage. Towards sunset, the sun is distorted to split in two. When it is all or part disk of the sun is below the horizon. However terrefraksi sunlight by the atmosphere makes the sun visible above the horizon.

Mirages are still holds many mysteries. Even the experts still can not explain in more detail. Especially how can a city view can be projected clearly on another city sky. But this could be a mystery even make the mirage becomes more attractive.

Friday, March 10, 2017

Understanding Lucid Dream

Understanding Lucid Dream - Lucid Dream is where we're dreaming, but we are aware of that and we could control the dream and can do anything in it as strong as our imagination.

The phenomenon of lucid dream has actually been mentioned much in the past, only the new few decades back, the scientific community began to recognize the existence of this phenomenon.
Starting from the Indian tribes (the shaman shaman) they apply a form of meditation that is able to maintain awareness even though the body is at rest. Then the 5th century, a letter from St. Augustine said that he was aware in his dream. Then the 8th century lucid dream re-recorded by Tibetan monks, in a book called 'Tibetan Book of the Dead', in the book, the monks tibet implements a form of yoga
that is able to teach meditation to keep the dream consciousness.

Benefits of Lucid Dream:
   1. Fantasy and adventure
Within DREAM, we can have full control over our desires, as strong and as much as our imagination. We can create a palace by army troops continue to fight dragons, or as a superhuman who can fly high everywhere it's up to you as strong as your imagination.

   2. Exercise
Lucid Dream is a Golden opportunity for you. Lucid Dream because we can practice before performing activities in the real world. For example, in the real world I want to do the long jump competition. Why not exercise at Lucid Dream just that in the real world later Insyallah Fluent.

   3. Inspiration / creativity
For Musicians, Authors Story, Author, Director, Filmmaker might Lucid Dream can help us. Why not ? Lucid Dream because we can find things that are very remarkable. and we can menuliskanya in the book, filmmaker, author of the story, Architects etc.

   4. Stop nightmares
In Lucid Dream we can control the dream so that we avoid nightmares. Suppose you just throw was no fire, pushed by hand without touching it and so forth depending on how strong our imagination.

   5. Troubleshooting
Lucid Dream Insyallah can solve our problems in the World. why you can confide with people in your subconscious. people in your subconscious surely someone a good listener. For example just for students. he is hard to experience a period of learning period. and he vent the same people in the lucid dream. and the words of our subconscious "Try to learn in an atmosphere of calm like a park or the beach and listen to the song for her concentration on lessons.

Thursday, March 9, 2017

Definition Hypothesis

Definition hypothesis

Definition Hypothesis - The hypothesis derived from a fragment of the word "hypo", which means "under" and Thesa "which means" truth ", so the hypothesis is then how to write the spelling Indonesian adapted to be hypothesis and berkembangan into hypothesis.
From the above statement can be concluded that the hypothesis is an allegation that needs to be known to be true, which means that allegation may be true may be wrong.

Types of Hypothesis
According Suharsimi Arikunto, the type of education research hypothesis can be classified into two general categories:
1. Working hypothesis, also called the alternative hypothesis (Ha). Working hypothesis suggested a link between the variables X and Y, or the difference between the two groups.
2. Zero hypothesis (null hypotheses) Ho. The null hypothesis is often called statistical hypothesis, because it is usually used in research that is statistics, which were tested with statistical calculations. Contrary to the above ideas can be the authors pointed out that in this study the authors propose a working hypothesis and null hypothesis (zero).
Example Hypothesis research writing.
Working Hypothesis (H1) "Learning Mathematics with Application Model Sinektiks more effective than learning mathematics without Sinektiks Model Implementation Of Learning Math Field Studies Sub Topics Linear Equations".
Nil Hypothesis (H0) "Learning Mathematics with Application Model Sinektiks ineffective compared to the learning of mathematics without Sinektiks Model Implementation Of Learning Math Field Studies Sub Topics Linear Equations".

Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis
A hypothesis or conjecture while good should contain some things. It - it include:
1) hypothesis must have explanatory power
2) The hypothesis must state the expected relationship exists between the variables-variables.
3) hypothesis must be tested
4) hypothesis should konsistesis with existing knowledge.
5) The hypothesis should be expressed as simple and concise as possible.

Here are some explanations on good hypothesis:
- Hypothesis must suspect Relations among several variables
Hypotheses should be able to guess the relationship between two or more variables, here should be analyzed variables considered to influence the particular symptoms and then investigated the extent to which a change in one variable brings about changes in other variables.
- Hypothesis must Can Tested
The hypothesis must be tested to be able to accept or reject it, this can be done by collecting empirical data.
- Hypothesis must be consistent with the existence of science knowl-
The hypothesis does not contradict with the knowledge that has been designated. In some issues, and particularly at the beginning of the study, it must be careful to propose hypotheses that agree with science that are ready defined as the base. As well as these points should match those needed to examine the literature with appropriate therefore a hypothesis to be formulated is on the basis of previous research reports.
- Indicated Hypothesis In Simple
A hypothesis will be presented into the formulation in the form of declarative sentences, the hypothesis stated briefly and perfect in completing what is required of researchers to prove the hypothesis.

A hypothesis must be tested by empirical data, which is based on what is observable and measurable. To the researchers must find a situation that gave empirical data needed. After we collect the data, then we have to conclude the hypothesis, whether to accept or reject the hypothesis. There is a danger of the researchers tend to accept or justify the hypothesis, because he is subject to bias or perasangka. By using quantitative data are processed under the provisions of statistical bias can be eliminated as much as possible, so a researcher have to be honest, do not manipulate the data, and must uphold the research in an effort to seek the truth.

Wednesday, March 8, 2017

Understanding About Kernel

Understanding About Kernel - Kernel is a software company that is a major part of an operating system. Their duties to serve a variety of application programs to access the computer hardware securely.

Understanding About Kernel

Because of limited access to the hardware, whereas there is more than one program that should be served at the same time, the kernel is also responsible for managing when and how long a program can use one part of the hardware. It is called as multiplexing.

Access to the hardware directly is a complex issue, therefore, the kernel usually implements a set of hardware abstraction. Abstractions such a way to hide the complexity, and allowing access to the hardware becomes simple and uniform. Abstraction so that ultimately facilitate the work of programmers.

To run a computer we do not have to use the operating system kernel. A program may directly be loaded and executed on the machine 'naked' computers, namely when the programmer wants to do his job without the help of the hardware abstraction or operating system support. This technique was used by the early generation computers, so if we want to move from one program to another, we need to reset and reload programs.

There are four categories kernel:

1. Monolithic kernels. Kernel providing hardware abstraction of the rich and powerful.

2. microkernel. Kernel that provide only a small set of simple hardware abstractions and use applications called servers to provide other functions.

3. Hybrid (modified microkernel). Kernel-like microkernel, but it also includes some extra code in the kernel so that it becomes faster.

4. exokernel. Kernel does not provide hardware abstraction at all, but it provides a set of libraries that provide functions to access the hardware directly or almost directly.

Of the four categories mentioned above kernel, the Linux kernel includes a category monolithic kernel. Different Linux kernel with Linux systems. The Linux kernel is an original software created by the Linux community, while the Linux system, which is known today, contains many components made or borrowed from other development projects.

The Linux kernel is the first published version of 12:01, on 14 March 1991. The only supported file system Minix file system. The first kernel was made under the terms of Minix (a small UNIX system developed by Andy Tanenbaum). However, the kernel is already implements the appropriate UNIX.

On March 14, 1994 released version 1.0, which is a milestone in the history of Linux. This version is the culmination of three years of rapid development of the Linux kernel. The biggest new feature is provided by the network. Version 1.0 is able to support standard networking protocols TCP / IP. Kernel 1.0 also has better file system without restrictions Minix file system. Some extra hardware support are also included in this release. Hardware support has evolved including floppy disks, CD-ROMs, sound cards, various mouse, and keyboard internationally. Support was also given to the loadable kernel module and dynamically unloadable.

One year later released kernel version 1.2. This kernel supports a variety of hardware wider. Developers have renewed networking stack to provide support for the IPX protocol, and make a more complete IP implementations by providing accounting functions and firewalling. Kernel 1.2 Linux kernel is the latest PC-only. Concentration is given on hardware support and multiply the complete implementation of the existing functions.

Monday, March 6, 2017

Definition of Ethnocentrism

Definition of Ethnocentrism

Definition of Ethnocentrism
Ethnocentrism attitude is an attitude that use sight and way of life from his perspective as a yardstick to judge another group.

If not managed properly, differences in culture and customs among social groups would lead to social conflict due to the attitude of ethnocentrism. The attitude arises because of the assumption of a community that they have a view of life and value systems that are different from other community groups.

Positive and Negative Impact of Ethnocentrism

The positive impact of ethnocentrism is:
can enhance the spirit of patriotism,
maintain the integrity and stability also culture,
enhance love for the nation itself.

Negative Impact of ethnocentrism is:
Can lead to inter-ethnic conflict.
Their political stream.
Hinder the process of assimilation of different cultures.

Saturday, March 4, 2017

Definitions and Functions of Protocol

Definitions and Functions of Protocol


A protocol is a set of rules or standards or allow a relationship, communication and transfer of data between two or more computer point. The protocol can be implemented in hardware, software or a combination of both. At the lowest level, the protocol defines the hardware connection.


In general, the protocol function is as a link in the communication of data so that the data exchange process can run properly.
In particular, the function of the protocol is as follows:
a. Fragmentation and Re-assembly
Sharing of information transmitted into packets of data from the sender side. If it has reached the recipient, the data packets are then assembled into a complete news package.
b. encapsulation
Encapsulation (Encaptulation) is the process of sending data that comes with the address, correction codes, and others.
c. control Connectivity
Building relationships in the form of communication and data delivery to end the relationship from the sender to the receiver.
d. flow Control
The function of Flow Control is as a regulator of the data path from sender to receiver.
e. error Control
His job is to control the occurrence of errors when data is transmitted.
f. Transmission service
Its function is to provide services relating to data communications and data security priorities.

Some types of commonly used protocols in a computer is as follows:
a. NetBeui Frame Protocol
b. NetBIOS
c. NWLink
d. IPX / SPX
e. TCP / IP
f. subnet mask
Of the six types of the protocol, which will be discussed is the TCP / IP protocol.

TCP / IP (stands for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) is a data communications standard used by the Internet community in the process of exchanging data from one computer to another computer on the network Internet. This protocol can not stand alone, because this protocol is a set of protocols (protocol suite). This protocol is a protocol that is most widely used today. The data are implemented in software (software) operating system. The term given to this software is the TCP / IP stack. This protocol uses a simple addressing scheme known as an IP address (IP Address), which allows up to several hundred million computers to be interconnected with each other on the Internet and where the IP address is also used on all sorts of protocol.

IP address (Internet Protocol Address or often abbreviated IP) is a row of binary numbers between 32-bit to 128-bit addresses used as identification for each host computer in the network Internet. The length of this figure is 32-bit (for IPv4 or IP version 4), and 128-bit (for IPv6 or IP version 6) which indicates the address of the computer on the Internet network based on TCP / IP.

Class IP Addresses
Each IP address consists of two fields, namely:

Field Net-ID, logical network address of the subnet in which the computer is connected
Field Host-Id, address logical device that is specifically used to identify each host on the subnet
Taken together, net-id and host-id provides each host on the internetwork with a dedicated IP address.

Friday, March 3, 2017

Understanding Hacker, Cracker, Defacer and Phreaker

Understanding Hacker, Cracker, Defacer and Phreaker

Hacker is a computer or IT professional group, they may be comprised of a computer engineer, pengaturcara and so forth that have a high knowledge in something computer system. Hackers have interests and deep knowledge in the IT world to know for sure that berkeupayaan weakness whole hog system to test the system trying to something. However, the hacker will not do any kero \ usakkan against something that system and it is an ethical hacker.

cracker can be categorized as people who understand the kind of high-level programming and little knowledge of the network. GENERAL his kracker most membuah ability to create a program to re-Disable /
me-manipulation track. Examples: cracker create a program so that should be paid for free. kracker do not really understand the ins and outs of their network its most general tend to like things that are free.

Once there was a case I see people proudly showing off their nickname in a website owned by someone else. Then he said "that's Website I hack" HACK? defacer its most common is a prankster who are want to try finding out both in terms of knowledge, ability, and self ... the easiest habits to know is they like to change the look of website use / exploit the weaknesses of the bugs / flaws in a program. Defacer generally do not understand much about the level of programming they are more likely to understand more about the performance of a webserver along with a script that is inside.

Phreaker is actually almost the same nature where the cracker equally liked free. The difference Phreaker more focus into the bug network / telecommunications. Examples ease with which people can call ato ngenet free when it should be paid, or other examples someone using a bug that exist within a telecommunications company (although it is unknown the leaking of this information is the result of its own or notified person) it is one of the activities phreaking and those who do so in Phreakers call.

Thursday, March 2, 2017

Understanding Syntax

Understanding Syntax

Understanding Syntax - Syntax is the rules writing 'sentence' to be able to be understood correctly by the programming language.
This is by default syntax rules must be met, because during the process of compilation of each line of the script will be checked and ascertained whether Compiler benar2 understand the meaning of a sentence or not. If there is a wrong syntax, the compiler will report if there is a part of the sentence that he did not understand or the term "error message" and not going forward make its bytecode.

There are 3 types / possible Error (error):
1. Compile-time error: errors found by the compiler at compile time! This error likely due to two things: the wrong syntax! or wrong meanings of words (semantics) eg type of data that does not fit! -> Executable file not gonna contrived.
2. Run-time error: error found during the program (executable file) are executed, for example, if the calculation of its divisor numbers 0 -> then the execution of the program will stop at that point.
3. Logical error: if all the syntax, semantics okay but LHA why the end result is wrong!

SQL stands for Structured Query Language, is a language used to access data in a database (database) relational. SQL is widely used in client-server-based programming such as PHP, ASP, Java J2EE, and so forth. Examples of well-known software SQL is MySQL, MsSQL (Microsoft), Oracle SQL, SQL Postgre (open source).

Each software has its own advantages, as far as I know Oracle SQL reliable in terms of security and the size of the database that can reach tera byte, being MsSQL more playing in memory for processing. Of the three this software, Oracle SQL can be regarded as the first holder. Basic SQL commands basically almost as good MySQL, SQL Postgre, MsSQL or Oracle SQL.

Wednesday, March 1, 2017

Understanding Chipset

Understanding Chipset

Understanding Chipset
physically, the chipset in the form of a collection of small IC or chips, that are designed to work together and mamiliki certain functions on the system of computer hardware, chipset found on madherboard, (cards) expansion, for example on the graphics card (vidio card), or at other computer equipment, the functions of the chipset on madherboard not the same as the chipset on the expansion cards. begiu, the function of the chipset on the other computer equipment .. each has its own functions that are specific,

Chipset functions
vidio chipset on the card serves to control the three-dimensional graphics rendering and output an image on a monitor.
While the chipset on madherboard serves to control the input and output (input and output) are fundamental to the computer. more details that chipset found on madherboard serves to regulate the flow of data from one Part to other components. for example, directs the data from the CPU (processor) to the graphics card (vidio card) or to system memory (RAM), and mangarahkan the flow of data over the PCI bus, IDE drives and I / O ports.
in this case, can be compared to that chipset as if it functions as a "traffic cop" regulating the flow of data on madherboard in a PC (personal computer).

Various computer Chipset
1. Chipset Southbridge
Is one of the two-chip chipset that controls the IDE bus, USB, support plug and play, bridging PCI and ISA, control the keyboard and mouse, power management features and other devices,
function: can set the input and output on the computer, including the pci and isa bus, processor, memory (RAM) cache

2. The Northbridge chipset
is the part that connects the processor (CPU) to the system memory controller dangraphics (AGP and PCI express) via a high-speed bus, and to the southbridge. which serves to escort komonikasi between the CPU, RAM module, AGP or PCI-E and southbridge,
berungsi: Guarding the communication between the CPU, RAM module, AGP or PCI-E and southbridge chipset and work together to enable computer functions
Northbridge chipset is usually located closer to the processor

Tuesday, February 28, 2017

Understanding Overhead

Understanding Overhead

Understanding Overhead - Factory overhead costs are often abbreviated with the BOP, is the cost of production in addition to the cost of materials and direct labor costs. Factory overhead costs are costs that can not be charged directly to suatuu unit of work or on a particular production.

Overhead is the expenditure required for the operational functions of public companies, and that can not be directly linked to income-generating activities or units of output (such as a product for sale). Examples of overhead burden is the cost accounting, legal, utilities, executive salaries and office rent.

Factory overhead costs usually arise from the costs to be incurred for the use of additional materials, indirect labor costs, supervision of production machines, taxes, insurance, until the additional facilities required in the production process. These costs can be classified into three broad categories.

  • Factory overhead costs by their nature, are divided into auxiliary costs, indirect labor costs, and the cost of repair and maintenance.
  • Factory overhead costs according to their conduct in relation to changes in production volume, divided into fixed factory overhead costs, variable factory overhead costs, and factory overhead costs semi-variable.
  • Factory overhead costs by their relationship with the department, is divided into two types, namely direct departmental factory overhead costs (direct departmental overhead expenses) and factory overhead costs not directly department (indirect departmental overhead expenses).

To be able to calculate overhead costs, there are several steps that must be done by the company, namely:

a. Creating a budget BOP is based on the volume of activities to be conducted in the future.
b. Define and estimate the loading BOP basis. The basic loading can be done by units of the product, raw material costs, direct labor costs, direct labor hours and machine hours.

Monday, February 27, 2017

Understanding Fermentation

Understanding Fermentation

Understanding Fermentation - Fermentation is a type of anaerobic respiration is the process of releasing energy that occurs in the absence of free oxygen. There are various types of fermented foods, but they all share some of the same characteristics.

Fermentation is a process that refers to the microorganisms to break down organic materials to get the energy it needs to stay alive and make organic compounds such as alcohols and organic acids, as well as inorganic compounds such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Depending on the substances that are formed, the process is called alcoholic fermentation, lactic acid fermentation, amino acid fermentation, etc.

Types of Fermentation:
Based on the resulting product, the fermentation is divided into two types, namely (Belitz, 2009):
Homofermentatif, namely fermentation end products only in the form of lactic acid. Homofermentatif example is the fermentation process that occurs in the blind of yoghurt.
Heterofermentatif, namely fermentation end products such as lactic acid and ethanol as much. Heterofermentatif example is the fermentation process that occurs in the manufacture of tape.

Factors Affecting Fermentation
The success of the fermentation is determined by several factors, namely:

a. Acidity (pH)
Acidic foods usually durable, but if the amount of oxygen enough and molds can grow and fermentation continues, then the lasting power of the acid will be lost. The level of acidity is very influential in the development of bacteria. Good acidity conditions for bacteria is 4.5-5.5.

b. microbe
Fermentation is usually done with a pure culture produced in the laboratory. This culture can be stored in a dry state or frozen.

c. Temperature
Fermentation temperature will determine the kind of dominant microbes during fermentation. Each microorganisms have maximum growth temperatures, minimal growth temperature, and the optimal temperature is the temperature that gives the best and fastest self propagation.

d. Oxygen
Air or oxygen during fermentation must be regulated as possible to increase or inhibit the growth of certain microbes. Each different microbes require oxygen for growth in number or form new cells and for fermentation. Eg yeast bread (Saccharomycess cereviseae) will grow better in an aerobic, but both will ferment sugar much faster with anaerobic conditions.

e. Time
The rate of multiplication of bacteria varies according to species and growing conditions. Under optimal conditions, bacteria will divide once every 20 minutes. For several generations which bacteria pick a time interval between the division, can be reached in 20 minutes. If the generation time of 20 minutes at suitable conditions a cell can produce several million cells for 7 hours.

Infrared Definition

Infrared Definition

Infrared Definition - Infrared (IR) rays are electromagnetic wavelengths than visible light is between 700 nm and 1 mm. An infrared beam of light that is not visible. Infrared uses light to signals, such as TV remote to change the channel on the television. Infrared can not penetrate objects that prevented him from reaching the receiver or need reflection, because of its light. Infrared also serves as a medium to transmit data. For example, in cell phones.

Infrared is the first generation of wireless connection technology used for mobile devices. InfraRed itself, is an electromagnetic wave radiation with wavelengths longer than red tide, but shorter than radio waves, which is 0.7 micro-m up to 1 millimeter.

Infrared first discovered accidentally by Sir William Herschell (1738-1822), astronomer royal England when he was conducting research in search of optical filters that will be used to reduce the brightness of the image of the sun in the solar system.
Infrared rays have a frequency range of 1011 Hz to 1014 Hz or wavelength region 10-4 cm. While the wave of near infrared (near infrared) has a wavelength of about 0.7 micro-m up to 2.5 micrometer.

Infra red can be used also as a wave cariier that can extend the distance limit wave reception, but the transmitted wave to be line of sight (LOS) or straight-infrared can not turn if the radius of vertical transmit ter light barrier by an object even if it is transparent. This theory we apply the digital wave modulation on the remote tv.

Mobile is now integrated with infrared and blue tooth devices to communicate with a pc.

Examples of its application, namely the delivery of mobile applications pc or vice versa, takes note of the telephone number pc very much that it can not be stored in the phone memory is usually used for broadcasting sms.

What is the difference infrared light with blue tooth?

First, using infrared light to emit a signal, such as TV remote, while blue tooth uses radio frequency (RF) (2.4 GHz) to broadcasts its signal.

second, infra red can not penetrate objects that prevented him from reaching the receiver or need reflection, because of its light .However Bluetooth can penetrate objects such as walls so far do not have a high skin depth.

Saturday, February 25, 2017

Understanding of Treaties

Understanding of Treaties - Treaty is an agreement made by two or more countries on specific issues that became an interest of the countries concerned in the implementation.

This Treaty is divided into two, as follows:

  • Bilateral Treaty is an agreement made by the two countries. In this treaty, have properties that closed because it involves only between the two countries concerned.
  • Multilateral Treaty is an agreement made by more than two countries. This Treaty has properties that are open for other countries to include themselves. For example such as the UN, NATO and others.

Friday, February 24, 2017

Monograms Definition

Monograms Definition

Monograms Definition - Monograms are part of history and culture. They have been used for centuries not only as an artful design adorning a favorite item, but as a religious symbol in Christianity. Though the modern monogram is only about 150 years old, it is still a rich and classic way to identify ones self.

The standard monograms we are all accustomed to are the three letter monograms. This type of monogram will have three letters each identifying the first, middle, and last initial of a name. The first initial will go on the left, the middle initial on the right, and the last initial directly in the middle. Often times these monograms are decorated with artistic calligraphy or flowing embellishments. This type of monogram is commonly used in items such as wedding invitations, towels, jewelry, and other household items to identify the owner.

The basic three letter styling of monograms has not been changed much since the late 19th century to the early 20th century and are still the most commonly used today. Before then, however, monograms consisted of usually one initial, that being the first initial of the last name. Royalty would commonly use this form of monogram with an elaborate family crest intertwined throughout. Single letter monograms are still used today but usually in the monogramming of linens. A single "M" could be used for either the last name, Mally, or the fist name Michael. In recent years a single letters on pendants have been used extensively as a first name identification monogram.

As of late the most popular monograms have been on jewelry and other keepsake items. In fact, there are stores dedicated to just this such thing. Most of these jewelry items with monograms are made of stainless steel, which is a softer metal than gold and easily engraveable. A matching necklace and bracelet set with monograms are a great gift for that special occasion or holiday. A champagne glass set with matching monograms are very popular for brides and grooms to use for toasting at their wedding and is a desirable bridal shower gift. Baby blankets with custom monograms for the baby are also wonderful gifts and keepsakes.

Monograms have also been used throughout history to mark gravestones. These were much more than artistic embellishments. The initials of the deceased were oftentimes engraved in the top portion of the gravestone for easy identification. Many of these gravestones were commissioned by the wealthy and were usually put on already elaborated memorials. Irish ancestors put monograms of IHS on their gravestones in some areas of the country denoting they were of the Christian faith. The letters IHS are a direct Latin reference to Jesus Christ. Monograms of IHS are also commonly found on crucifixes.

Whether it is a piece of jewelry, or a religious artifact, monograms have had many purposes and uses throughout history. There are more around than one would think. Next time, stop and look and see for yourself, I'll bet you find some interesting monograms.

Thursday, February 23, 2017

Definition of Marketing

Definition of Marketing

Definition of Marketing - Marketing is one of the main activities to be performed by either company, the company goods or services in an effort to maintain the viability of their business. This is because marketing is one of the company's activities, which are directly related to the consumer. Then the marketing activities can be defined as human activities that take place in relation to the market. Kotler (2001) suggests the definition of marketing means working with the target market to realize the potential exchange with the intention of satisfying human needs and desires. So it can be said that the success of marketing is the key to the success of a company.

The core concepts of marketing meluputi: needs, wants, demand, production, utility, value and satisfaction; exchange, transaction and market relations, marketing and market. We can distinguish between needs, wants and demands. The need is felt the absence of a state certain basic satisfaction. Desire is a strong desire to be satisfying specific to the needs deeper. While the inquiry is the desire for a specific product that is supported by the ability and willingness to buy.

The main objective of the marketing concept is to serve customers by getting a profit, or can be defined as the ratio between earnings at reasonable costs. This is different from the concept that focuses on the sale of company interests. Philosophy in his sales approach is to produce a factory, then convince consumers that are willing to buy it. While the marketing concept approach requires that management determine the wishes of consumers first, only then do how to satisfy.

From the description above can be concluded that marketing management is a planned activity, and diorganisasiknan which includes the distribution of goods, pricing, and supervision of the policies that have been made which aim to secure a place in the market so that the main purpose of marketing can be achieved.

Wednesday, February 22, 2017

What is the Definition of Criminology?

What is the Definition of Criminology?

What is the Definition of Criminology? - When thinking about what criminology is, an individual needs to first consider what aspects and fields are affected by the criminal element.  Some of these fields will also either perpetuate or deter crime, depending on how they are used.  Anthropology, sociology, law, research positions and others all tie into criminology.  Criminology could then be defined as how any of these many multitudes of society’s development and creation are able to affect how individuals interact, specifically when it comes to the degenerate element.  Using science to approach the evolution of crime within an area or timeframe allows individuals to learn how an environment may respond to and otherwise affect crime.  Certain things can be analyzed in order to come to a conclusion about crime and the criminal element within a particular area, such as any hereditary elements that may have had a factor or psychological issues that would have instigated the crime.  In addition, many criminologists are also interested in studying how the punishment of criminals affects the likelihood of the same crimes being performed.

When people’s actions or movements deviate from the normal status of things in a way which is excessively harmful or dangerous to themselves or others, criminologists may become involved in the situation.  By studying both crime and the law, an academic person can come up with possible motivations for an individual’s actions.  These theoretical explanations are often helpful when profiling a person who has yet to be caught by the police, as well as when statistics are needed in order to illustrate a trend or issue for a community.  However, it is not just crimes that are studied and analyzed by the criminologist.  In addition, they also look at the criminal justice system on a whole in order to make sure that it is functioning in a sufficient manner that benefits the lives of citizens.

The definition of criminology is broad in order to encompass all of the different fields that fall under the term.  However, by being more specific in the type of criminology that is being investigated, an individual is able to focus more on the individuals cornerstones of the different types of criminology that exist.  For example, psychological criminology was a part of criminology for a long time but did not begin to be looked at on its own until the 20th century.  This field looks at the abnormalities and mental diseases that may feed criminal behaviors.  It is specialized in the way that proponents of this type of criminology believe that the personality of the individual is the breeding ground for the levels and types of crime that the individual will be capable of committing.  Emotions and behavior patterns are often able to remain relatively stable and predictable regardless of what type of environment the individual is placed into, which helps academics to formulate the idea that this is what defines a person.  Criminologists are able to look at crime and other related fields from different perspectives in order to analyze the cause and effect relationship of the crime, the individual and the environment in which they are immersed.

Tuesday, February 21, 2017

Perspective Definition

Perspective is a perspective that comes from one's awareness of an issue that occurs. Perspective can be used as an addition to insight or knowledge of a person in order to see everything that happens with a broad view.

So perspectives have characteristics such as: a person who has a perspective that high would think broadly and does not discriminate against something, so do not look at the matter from a narrow view and fragmented, someone who has a perspective that is high will easily be able to interact with people another harmoniously, someone who has a higher perspective able to compete or competent healthily.

Promiscuity is a process of interaction between a person with another person, can be done by two people or groups. It depends on the intent and purpose of the association itself. Here are some understanding of the association according to the experts:

Aristotle: man is a creature that can not be separated from social life, meaning that humans are creatures of mutual berhubungna and interact with each other.

Ghozally 2007: the association is a relationship forged between individuals which include feelings, behavior, and self contained.

Basrowi 2005: the association can not be discharged from the interaction is a dynamic relationship between individuals by other individuals, individuals and groups as well as groups with other groups.

Monday, February 20, 2017

Alternative Energy Definition

Alternative Energy Definition

Alternative Energy Definition - What is Alternative Energy? There is a lot of energy that we can  harness if we only seek to research and develop the technologies needed to do so. We can get away from the fossil fuels and the old electrical grids by turning to alternatives to these energy sources.

One of these alternative energy resources is wind power. Wind turbines continue to be developed that are progressively more energy efficient and less costly. “Wind farms” have been springing up in many nations, and they have even become more strategically placed over time so that they are not jeopardizing birds as former wind turbines did.

Another alternative energy resource is the one that is most well known: solar energy. This involves the manufacturing of solar cells which gather and focus the energy given off directly by the sun, and translate it into electricity or, in some cases, hot water. As with wind energy, solar energy creates absolutely zero pollution.

Ocean wave energy is seen by governments and investors as having enormous energy generating potential. A generator in France has been in operation for many years now and is considered to be a great success, and the Irish and Scots are running experimental facilities.

Hydroelectric power has been with us for a while and where it is set up, it is a powerful generator of electricity and cleaner than a grid. However, there are certain limitations to the availability of the right places to set up a large dam. Many run-of-the-river, or small and localized, hydroelectric generators have been set up in recent times due to this limitation.

Geothermal energy is extremely abundant, since it lies directly beneath our feet, just a few miles below the earth's surface. This energy is produced by the heating of water through the actions of earth's fantastically hot molten core. The water turns to steam, which can be harnessed and used to drive turbine engines which in turn generate electricity. Great amounts of research and development should be put into geothermal energy tapping.

Waste gas energies, which are essentially methane, reverse the usual energy-pollution relationship by creating energy from waste that lies in the dumps and from some air pollutants. This gas is used in fuel cells and can be used in standard gasoline generators.

Ethanol is a gasoline substitute and is created from such things as wheat, sugarcane, grapes, strawberries, corn, and even wood chips and wood cellulose. There is controversy over this fuel with regards to its ever becoming truly economical or practical except in very localized areas, but technologies for its extraction and admixturing are continuously being refined.

Biodiesel energy is created out of the oils contained in plants. So far, the commercial stores of biodiesel have been created using soybean, rapeseed, and sunflower oils. At the time of this writing, biodiesel is typically produced by entrepreneurial minded individuals or those who want to experiment with alternative energy, but commercial interest from companies is on the rise. It burns much cleaner than oil-based diesel.

Atomic energy is created in atomic energy plants using the process of nuclear fission. This energy is extremely efficient and can generate huge amounts of power. There is concern from some people about what to do with the relatively small amount of waste product atomic energy gives off, since it is radioactive and takes hundreds of years to decay into harmlessness.

Sunday, February 19, 2017

Understanding the zodiac

Understanding the zodiac
Understanding the zodiac

Zodiac is

Etymologically zodiac (zodiac) is derived from the Latin word meaning Zodiacus (circle) animals. It is what lies behind the use of animal names to name the zodiac.
Zodiac scientific definition is:
Zodiak declare an annual cycle of the 12 areas along the circle of the ecliptic (the path that is a pattern change position of the sun in the sky) formed by the ecliptic circle is divided by clusters of stars into 12 areas with the size of the same arc.

First let's look at the definition of astrology and astronomy:
Astrology: the science that interprets the reality and human existence, based on the position and movement relative various celestial bodies, especially the Sun, Moon, planets as seen at the time and place of birth or any other event being studied.
Or in short astrology is a science that assumes that human destiny can be attributed to the location of astronomical objects in the sky
Astronomy: the science involving the observation and explanation of events occurring outside Earth and its atmosphere. The science of studying the origins, evolution, physical and chemical properties of objects that can be seen in the sky (and extraterrestrial), also processes involving them.


The main function of the zodiac is a kind of map position or the position of the sun in the sky, but unfortunately due to various reasons turned out to be the zodiac used (abused?) Forcibly MAY out of the realm of science to predict the fate of a person (such as a book as a fan).
But it is tragic fate of the zodiac because he did not like notebooks that are still recognizable primary function. The main function of the zodiac turned out to have been blurred and marginalized by other functions (though other functions may TSB benar2 arise because there is coercion).
Regarding the reasons for certain about the use of the zodiac in astrology because I do not know if I am forced to discuss this issue then it means I have to enter the realm of astrology, and I do not like things like that.
How? Have we find out exactly what the zodiac?
Conclusion I personally (please colleagues take their own conclusions) is if referring to the definition of the actual zodiac zodiac are in the realm of astronomy, the zodiac is a scientific thing because it addresses the position of the sun throughout the year. Regarding the impression now that the zodiac related to astrology in my opinion is an "accident" of history.