Understanding DNA - DNA is a nucleic acid that stores all the unique biological information of every living creature and some viruses. Its chemical structure of macromolecular complex consisting of three kinds of molecules, ie pentose sugar (deoxyribose), phosphoric acid, and a nitrogenous base. The main role of DNA molecules is the long-term storage of information. DNA is often compared to a set of blueprints or a recipe, or a code, since it contains the instructions needed to construct other components of cells, such as proteins and RNA molecules. DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of genetic information.
DNA can replicate that form a copy of itself. Each strand of DNA containing a specific base sequences. Each base is also connected by sugar and phosphate molecules. When the bases form the rungs (horizontal), then the sugar and phosphate molecules forming the vertical part of the stairs.
DNA is short for deoxyribonucleic acid, or in Indonesian called deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA derived from the three main words that Deoxyribo, and nucleid acid (nucleic acid). Deoxyribo word meaning (Wikipedia) is a sugar loses its oxygen atom, while the meaning of the nucleic acid (Wikipedia) is a molecule that contains genetic information.
DNA molecules in our bodies are arranged in packets called chromosomes. Every human being has 23 pairs of chromosomes. One of the 23 pairs of chromosomes, called the sex chromosomes, are different in men and women. Females have two X chromosomes, men have chromosomes X and Y. Every organism has a different number of chromosomes. For example, simpanze have 24 pairs, 11 pairs bananas, and flies only 4 pairs.
Furthermore, the chromosomes are arranged in short segments of DNA called genes. When DNA is a recipe book, then each gene is a recipe. This recipe tells cells how to function and express certain properties. Humans have about 25,000 genes. Genes that determine hair color, hair type, skin color, eye color, etc. For example, a person has dark curly hair because the genes inherited from the parents instruct cells to form hair follicles and curly black hair.